Schema therapy (ST) is an integrative therapy, which combines elements of cognitive behavior therapy, attachment theory, object relations theory and emotional-focused models. Schema therapy is an effective treatment for patients with personality disorders and other chronic psychological disorders. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) are a main concept in schema theory referring to self-defeating, core themes or patterns. They develop as a result of traumatic or toxic childhood experiences and the frustration of the core emotional needs in childhood. To date 18 EMSs have been identified and grouped into five higher order structures, known as domains. For the evaluation of the EMSs, Young developed a self-report inventory, the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ). There are two forms of the YSQ, the Young Schema Questionnaire – Long Form 3 (YSQ-L3) a 232-item inventory and the Young Schema Questionnaire – Short form 3 (YSQ-S3), a 90-item inventory, which is a subset of the Long form. The aim of this study was to validate the Greek Version of the YSQ-S3. A non-clinical sample of 1,236 undergraduate students completed the YSQ-S3 and 124 patients with Axis-I, Axis II or comorbid diagnosis, completed the YSQ-L3. Moreover, both samples completed the second part of the Adults Self Report (ASR). Internal consistency reliability, discriminative, convergent and predictive validity were examined. The internal consistency reliability of the schema factors was satisfactory with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.70 or above, for all factors in both student’s and clinical sample. The effect sizes were high for most of the scales, regarding the differences between clinical and non-clinical sample. Emotional Deprivation, Vulnerability to harm or Illness, Subjugation, Social Isolation/Alienation and Defectiveness/Shame had the highest effect sizes in the clinical sample and in the non-clinical sample according to whether they had ever visited a mental health specialist. This may suggest that these EMSs are more sensitive and useful markers of psychological problems. In addition, patients with Axis II pathology scored significantly higher on Emotional Deprivation, Abandonment, Mistrust/Abuse, Social Isolation/Alienation compared to patients with only Axis I pathology. This finding is consistent with Schema theory, as these EMSs are associated with earlier in life traumatic experiences and insecure attachment and lie in the core of personality pathology. YSQ-S3 factors were significantly correlated with all ASR dimension and linear regression analysis showed that certain EMSs could predict Depressive and Anxiety problems. In total, the greek version of the YSQ-S3 showed good reliability and validity.

Key words: Early Maladaptive Schema, validity, internal consistency reliability, Young Schema Questionnaire.

I.A. Malogiannis, Aik. Aggeli, D. Garoni, Ch. Tzavara, I. Michopoulos, A. Pehlivanidis, A. Kalantzi-Azizi, G.N. Papadimitriou (page 220)

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